Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Reference, philosophy: reference means a) the relation between an expression and one or more objects, thus the reference or b) the object (reference object) itself. Terminological confusion arises easily because the author, to whom this term ultimately goes back - G. Frege - spoke of meaning (in the sense of "pointing at something"). Reference is therefore often referred to as Fregean meaning in contrast to the Fregean sense, which describes what we call meaning today. See also meaning, sense, intension, extension.
 
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I 106
Reference/Millikan: the sentence sense depends on much more fundamental types of relations than the correspondence or reference.
For example, the relation of a true sentence to what it maps in the world cannot be analyzed as a reference, just as e.g. "blood pumping" cannot be analyzed as "blood pumping". ((s) > naturalistic fallacy).
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I 113
Referent/Millikan: referent is a complex term.
1. Index words: here the referent is context-dependent.
2. In some contexts the normal referent is replaced by another: e.g quotation marks, intentional contexts.
3. Protoreferent: see below, Chapter 13.
Definition Referent/Millikan: if there is something definite and real existent, on which an expression is to map, then this is the referent.
But this does not have to be an object.
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I 199
Reference/Image/Identity/Millikan: "A is B" is a non-representative sentence. The element "A" is as much related to its real-value as an element of a e.g. bee dance on its real value.
N.B.: of the values is assumed in neither of the two cases that they are identified. That is, we are not dealing with reference but with protoreference:
Definition Protoreference/Millikan: e.g. Protoreferent of "A" and "B" in "A is B" are the lowest types of "A" and "B".

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-27