|Morning Star/Evening Star: Example for intensions from Frege's Über Sinn und Bedeutung (1982). The extension would be the planet Venus. Intensions may cause difficulties in relation to so called opaque contexts. E.g. a whitness maintains that she has seen the morning star. She may then not be quoted as having seen the evening star - while both are identical to the Venus. See also opacity, identity, intensions.|
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Identity/translation/Identity sentence/Identity statement/foreign language/Millikan: should one not assume that an identity sentence such as "A is B" cannot be translated? Where "A" and "B" are terms of a given language?
MillikanVs: an identity statement "A is B" is very well translatable. One simply takes the expressions into the other language.
Problem: E.g. Suppose a native tribe in Africa calls Hesperus and Phosphorus "Morven" and "Even", but does not know that they are identical. Then we cannot translate "Hesperus is Phosphorus" in their language with "Morven is Even"!
Justification: Stabilization function: should be preserved during translation. And the stabilization function is here to make the listener change his behavior in relation to the elements of the families of "A" and "B". Then the translation would be incorrect.
On the other hand:
The fully developed intension of "Even" and "Hesperus" is very similar. Thus, the two pairs of the stabilization function, are similar in a decisive regard for those who grasp the fully-developed intension. Thus, "Morven is Even" fulfills the main part of the stabilization function of "Hesperus is Phosphorus".
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987