|Context, context dependency: sentences, words and texts depend to a varying extent on the addition of additional information to eliminate ambiguities. In particular, the use of index words such as "here", "now", but also of pronouns like "mine" leads to indeterminacy of the reference. The additional information may possibly be taken from an already existing information set, whereby the sentences to be examined, words or texts, form a subset of this more comprehensive set. Such a more comprehensive amount of information already existing elsewhere is called context. See also dependency, ambiguity, indeterminacy, discovery.|
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Intentional context/says that/believes that/belief attribution/Millikan:
1. Method: to ask: what characteristics of expressions must be preserved during the translation from direct to indirect speech.
E.g. translation of "John said p" to "John said that q".
Millikan: thesis: the rule will be to get the reference, no matter what expression must be used.
Problem: when a descriptive expression needs to be translated. Then the relational meaning must also be preserved.
2. Method: every indexical expression token in intentional contexts should be read as a shifted (i.e., normal!) adapted referent from the current context, not from the original context.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987