Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Grammar: total domain of linguistic theory encompassing syntax, semantics, phonology, morphology. W.V.O. Quine distinguishes the grammar from the lexicon. L. Wittgenstein calls sentences about language grammatical sentences. See also meaning, lexicon, language.
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Books on Amazon
I 258
Grammatical categories/Millikan: grammatical categories are nowadays understood by categories of surface patterns classified by surface transformations, e.g. "Pegasus exists" behaves to "Pegasus existed yesterday" as "John trained" to "John trained yesterday". Therefore "exist" and "train" fall into a common grammatical category.
I 259
E.g. "There are books on the table" behaves to "Are there books on the table?" as "Cats are curious" to "Are cats curious?".
E.g. "Here are books on the table" does not become "Are here books on the table?"
Therefore: "there" falls into a common grammatical category with "cats" but not with "here". But these are only surface transformations.

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987

> Counter arguments against Millikan
> Counter arguments in relation to Grammar

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-25