|That clause: partial sentence, expresses e.g. a belief (propositional attitude). This content is intensional, i.e. it is not objective. For some authors, the partial sentence "that it is raining" is the name of the sentence "It is raining".|
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Believes that/says that/quotation marks/Millikan: 1. in a particular context, an expression may have a shifting function that is indexical.
2. We already know three ways how expressions can be grouped into types. Could there not be another way that stands across to families or languages?
E.g. "says that" instead of mentioning quotation marks?
E.g. "Galileo said "Eppur si muove" and not "the earth is moving".
Family/Function/Classification/Grouping/Millikan: E.g. Human hearts and fish hearts can be grouped together, although they are elements of different families.
3. Belief attribution/quote/Millikan: "believes that .." "says that ..." are representations. Could there not be a way to classify representations that stand across to the distinction inside/outside?
Problem: "believes that" does not always correspond to an inner representation. E.g. John believes that Cicero is Tullius. ((s) Identity statements are not representations). So we cannot say that the term alone "believes that" indicates an own type.
Classification/Millikan: if it is not to happen according to families, there are obvious alternatives:
1. Classification according to stabilization function:
Question: What about the referring expressions in the sentence? These have Fregean sense.
Fregean Sense/Millikan: there are two types of indexical expressions:
A) relational meaning and
B) adapted meaning.
Intension: here, too, there are two indexical expressions.
B) fully-developed (language-independent). Which of the four types is meant in "says that"? There will be different methods of classification.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987