|Picture: an object which is in a specified relationship to another object. The objects may originate from different areas such as experience and imagination or from similar areas (lighting and photography) or from the same domain as in the forgery. Mathematics here the required relation is defined a function.|
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Graphics/Diagram/Syntax/Millikan: Graphics and diagrams have describable syntactic structures. E.g. Drawings of impossible rooms: can be described as breaking through syntactic rules.
TV picture/TV/Millikan: here the case is quite different from the case of machine signs such as the e.g. fuel gauge. There are no pre-established characteristics as a model, and the interpreter is not expected to learn such standards! The images are rather produced by the model of natural signs.
Interpretation: does not happen here according to a program designed for reading intentional icons, but it is about an ability that is either innate or has been developed for reading natural signs. ((s)> film).
Watching Television/loudspeaker/TV/radio/Millikan: this is not a question of establishing or developing a cooperation as a normal condition for the proper operation of the loudspeaker.
Malfunction: is not interpreted as a "false statement".
Picture/TV picture/TV: what the TV picture is a picture of is not something the interpreter would accept - if it functions normally - but the one in the world to which it is to be adapted. ((s) Realistic rendering, realism, not communication).
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987