|Picture, mapping: what conditions must meet a picture? In how it relates to the depicted object? Is there a copy ratio in nature? See also similarity, causation, representation, causality.|
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Picture/Meaning/Millikan: Expressions of the public language are often handed down for reasons that have nothing to do with their mapping function.
E.g. "bewitched": such a term has no meaning, its only meaning is its intension. ((s) Intension here: personal reasons for use).
N.B.: that an expression has no meaning must be discovered empirically. It cannot be known a priori.
Identity/Meaning/Picture/Millikan: The meaning of "A is B" requires that "A" and "B" map to the lowest word types that have a special relation to each other, namely that they have the same referent.
Problem: the focused stabilizing function of "A is B" is not to produce inner terms in the listener that map words!
Representation: this is the reason why "A is B" is an intentional icon, it is not a representation.
Referent: do "A" and "B" have referents? So far we've talked about something that needs to be here, and that is the real value so that it works normally.
Real value: must be defined beforehand by the content of the rest of the icon or sentence.
Real value: from "A": is the word type "A". And this is not determined by the content, but only by the form of the rest of the sentence.
Picture/Identity/Reference/Millikan: no one who passed through Carnap's school would assume that "A" refers to the word "A".
Reference/Millikan: here we have to distinguish two types of reference.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987