|Nature, philosophy: nature is usually defined as the part of reality that was not made or designed by humans. No properties can be attributed to nature. E.g. since contradiction is ultimately a language problem, one can say that nature cannot be contradictory. Not all forms of necessity can be attributed to nature, e.g. non-logical necessity and unnecessary existence. See also de re, de dicto, necessity de re, existence._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Singer I 4
Nature/Ethics/Mill/P. Singer: as J. St. Mill showed in "On Nature", "nature" means either
a) everything that exists in the universe, including the human beings and their creations, or...
b) Nature is what the world is, independent of humans.
In the sense of (a) nothing what humans do can be unnatural, in the sense of (b) one can not conceive the determination that human action is "unnatural" as a reproach because everything is then an interaction with nature and much of it is desirable._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
John St. Mill
A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, London 1843
Von Namen, aus: A System of Logic, London 1843
Eigennamen, Ursula Wolf, Frankfurt/M. 1993
J. St. Mill
Utilitarianism: 1st (First) Edition Oxford 1998
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015