Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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I 43
Evolution/Mayr: Unit of evolution is the population (or species) and not the gene or the individual. (MayrVsDawkins).
I 183
Evolution/Mayr: Species is the decisive entity of evolution.
I 230
Evolution/Progress/Mayr:
Cohesion: an expression of the fact that the system of development has become very narrow.
Evolution: proceeds very slowly in large, member-rich species, and very quickly in small peripheral isolated groups. (Speciation, >interrupted equilibrium, Gould).
A start-up population with few individuals and therefore little hidden genetic variation can more easily assume a different genotype.
Macroevolution: is most strongly determined by the geographical factor (isolation).
I 234
Evolution/Mayr: the concepts:
1) Rapid evolution: (transmutationism): type jump. Even after Darwin some researchers (including his friend Huxley) could not accept the concept of natural selection and developed saltationist theories.
2) Transformational evolution (transformationism) gradual change of the ice to the organism. Ignored by Darwin.
I 235
3) Variation Evolution (Darwin)
I 235
Darwin (early): adaptation modification. Vs: can never explain the enormous variety of organic life, because it does not allow for an increase in the number of species.
I 236
Darwin/Mayr: The Origin of Species: 5 Main Theories
1) Organisms are constantly evolving over time (evolution as such).
2) Different species of organisms are derived from a common ancestor.
3) Species multiply over time (speciation)
4) Evolution takes the form of gradual change. (GradualismVsSaltationism).
5) The evolutionary mechanism consists in the competition among numerous unique individuals for limited resources that leads to differences in survival and reproduction (natural selection).
I 234
Evolution/Mayr: the concepts:
1) Rapid evolution: (transmutationism): type jump. Even after Darwin some researchers (including his friend Huxley) could not accept the concept of natural selection and developed saltationist theories.
2) Transformational evolution (transformationism) gradual change of the ice to the organism. Ignored by Darwin.
I 235
3) Variation Evolution (Darwin)
I 235
Darwin (early): adaptation modification. Vs: can never explain the enormous variety of organic life, because it does not allow for an increase in the number of species.
I 236
Darwin/Mayr: The Origin of Species: 5 Main Theories
1) Organisms are constantly evolving over time (evolution as such).
2) Different species of organisms are derived from a common ancestor.
3) Species multiply over time (speciation)
4) Evolution takes the form of gradual change. (GradualismVsSaltationism).
5) The evolutionary mechanism consists in the competition among numerous unique individuals for limited resources that leads to differences in survival and reproduction (natural selection).
I 377
Evolution of life: a chemical process involving autocatalysis and a directing factor. Prebiotic selection.
I 237
Pasteur: proofed the impossibility of life in oxygen-rich atmosphere! In 1953, Stanley Miller grew amino acids, urea and other organic molecules in a glass flask by discharging electricity into a mixture of methane, ammonium, hydrogen, and water vapor.
I 238
Proteins, nucleic acids: the organisms must form these larger molecules themselves.
Amino acids, pyrimidines, puridine do not need to formed by the organisms themselves.
I 239
Molecular biology: discovered that the genetic code is the same for bacteria, which do not have nuclei, as in protists, fungi, animals and plants.
I 240
Missing link: Archaeopteryx: half bird half reptile. Not necessarily direct ancestor.
Speciation: a) dichopatric: a previously connected area is divided by a new barrier: mountain range, inlets, interruption of vegetation.
b) peripatrically: new start-up population emerges outside of the original distribution area.
c) sympatric speciation: new species due to ecological specialization within the area of ​​distribution.
Darwin's theory of gradualism
I 243
VsGardualism: cannot explain the emergence of completely new organs. Problem: How can a rudimentary wing be enlarged by natural selection before it is suitable for flying?
I 244
Darwin: two possible solutions:
a) Intensification of the function: E.g. eyes, e.g. the development of the anterior limbs of moles, whales, bats.
b) Functional change: E.g. Antennae of daphia (water flea): additional function of the swimming paddle, which is enlarged and modified under selection pressure.
E.g. Gould: Feathers probably first for temperature control before any animal could fly.
Function/Biology: Functional differences are also related to behavioral patterns, e.g. feather cleaning.
Competing theories on evolutionary change
I 247
Salationism: Huxley later Bateson, de Vries, (Mendelists). The saltationist emergence of new species only occurs poyploidy and some other forms of chromosomal restructuring (very rare) during sexual reproduction.
Teleological theories: assume that nature has a principle: Osbron's arsitogenesis, Chardin's omega principle. Should lead to perfection.
Lamarck's Theories: Changes go back to use and non-use, environmental conditions. Until the 1930s!
I 248
Def "soft inheritance" (acquired characteristics). Was refuted by genetics.
Def "hard inheritance" (so-called "central dogma"): the information contained in the proteins (the phenotype) cannot be passed on to the nucleic acids (the genotype)! (Insight of molecular biology).
I 256
Macroevolution: after saltationism, soft heredity and autogenesis, had been refuted with evolution, macroevolution had to be explained more and more as a phenomenon on the level of the population, i.e. as a phenomenon directly attributable to events and processes during microevolution. (Speciation: faster in isolation). (>Gould, Eldredge, 1971: "interrupted equilibrium, "punctuated equilibrium", punctualism).
I 281
New: we know today that the cycles of herbivores elicit those of the predators and not vice versa!
Coevolution: E.g. the Yucca moth destroys the plant's ovules by its larvae, but pollens the flowers.

Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-27