|Behavior, philosophy: behavior ist the set of observable changes in the describable state of living organisms that are initiated by these organisms themselves, or which are a reaction to external stimuli, in which there is a certain choice of the reaction. Flanking thoughts do not belong to behavior, since an arbitrary extension of the frame of reference would make a determination of the behavior impossible. See also behaviorism, psychology, mentalism, naturalism, observation._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Books on Amazon
|Page numbers here from the German edition: K. Lorenz, Das sogenannte Böse Wien, 1963
Aggression/Lorenz: two types:
A) between different species
B) within one species. (Subject of this book).
"Mobbing"/"hate on"/Lorenz: crows, and other birds "hate on" the owl they have discovered by day: (s) They show their fellow-species by gestures where the enemy is.
For example a jay follows the fox screeching through the forest.
This is a passing on of a non-innate knowledge.
Singing/Birds/Lorenz: Birds share, among others things, also the age.
Aggression/Lorenz: Thesis: More than other properties, the aggressive behavior can be exaggerated by its pernicious effect in the grotesque and unsuitable.
For us, it is the inheritance of the intraspecific selection, which has lasted over decades.
The evil introspecific selection must be taken.
Stimulus/Reaction/Behavior/Lorenz: Experiments show that (in captivity) the withdrawal of stimuli decreases the threshold for triggering reactions. At the end, a room corner is performed courtship to because it is the only visual point of view.
Aggression/Evolution/Lorenz: The reorientation of the attack is probably the most ingenious source that was created by the species change, in order to divert aggression into harmless pathways.
Behavior/ritualization/Lorenz: e.g. in the insect world, it may be the case that behavior is even be embodied. E.g. robbery or assassination: the suitor hands over a prey to the beloved of the right size so that he can have sexual intercourse with the female during her eating the prey without being eaten himself.
Later generations react only to a corresponding symbol. Congenital understanding.
Behavior/animal/ritualization/Lorenz: it would be a mistake to call ritualized "rushing" an "expression" of love "or the affiliation of the female to the spouse.
The independent instinctual movement is not a by-product, not an epiphenomenon of the tie that holds the animals together, but it is itself this tie.
A completely autonomous, new instinct.
Rite/behavior/animal/Lorenz: the most important function is the active drive to social behavior.
New function: communication.
The unification of the variable variety of possibilities of action into a single rigid sequence reduces the danger of ambiguity in the communication.
"Good manners" are those that characterize their own group.
Any deviation causes aggression, so the group is forced to act in a unified way.
Behavioral research/Lorenz: in the heroic time of comparative behavioral research, it was thought that only one instinct dominated this, but exclusively, one animal.
J. HuxleyVs: Human and animal are like a ship commanded by many captains.
Animals have this agreement that only one of them can enter the command bridge.
Gould I 105
Lorenz's thesis: we do not react to wholenesses or shapes, but to a group of special mechanisms that act as triggers. (Lorenz, 1950 "Ganzheit und Teil") It is well known that birds, in particular, react to abstract features and not to shapes.
Gould VIII 34
Aggression/Lorenz: (The so-called Evil): Thesis: Aggression is a species-preserving function. Thus only the most suitable individuals are propagated.
DawkinsVsLorenz: Prime example for a circular reasoning. It is also contrary to Darwinism, which he does not seem to have noticed._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.