|Principles, philosophy of science: physical principles are not the same as laws of nature. Rather, laws can be gained from principles or traced back to principles. Examples are the principle of the shortest time, the principle of the smallest effect, the uncertainty principle. See also theories, laws of nature, laws, natural constants._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Holz I 47
Principle/Proof/Leibniz: from the principles of identity and experience (manifoldness is perceived by me) can be proved,
1. that a proof of it is impossible,
2. that all other sentences depend on it. (If they are not true, there is no knowledge at all).
Identity Principle/Leibniz: the identity principle is not derived from the senses, but is set with the senses.
Holz I 56
1. the assumption that the syllogism is valid,
2. that the contradiction is paradoxical.
This is, however, formal and does not yet lead to a substantive positing of material truth.
Holz I 66
Truths of Reason/Leibniz: here there are two great principles:
1. the principle of non-contradiction
2. the principle of determining reason. (Sufficient reason).
"Although these determinant reasons are generally not sufficiently known, we still see that they are present." Insight into the existence of the reason is a priori, for the reason is nothing other than the inesse of the determining factor in the corresponding fact. (> Ratiocinatio: reduction to identical sentences)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
G. W. Leibniz
Philosophical Texts (Oxford Philosophical Texts) Oxford 1998
H. H. Holz
Leibniz Frankfurt 1992