|Predicates, philosophy, logic: predicates are symbols that can stand in logical formulas for properties. In fact, not every predicate stands for a property, since it has contradictory predicates, but no contradictory properties. For example, one can think of a predicate "squaround" for "square and round", that is, two properties that exclude each other. One can then truthfully say "Nothing is squaround". There are therefore more predicates than properties. See also round square, scheme characters, quantification, 2nd level logic, predication, attributes, adjectives.|
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|Holz I 49/50
World/"Chain"/Theory/Explanation/Leibniz: a theory of the world must therefore be formulated as a chain of sentences, which can be reduced by the last term ascending to identical sentences (A = B).
Predicate/"chain of proofs"/proof/Leibniz: therefore the predicate or the following is always inhabiting the subject or the preceding.
The very first term needs not to be proved, for to prove is nothing but to trace back a proposition to a simple identical one. It can therefore not be proved at all.
Holz I 108/109
Predicates/Substances/Leibniz: Logical, ontological double sense:
A) the real correspondence of the predicates, which can be expressed by a substance
B) the properties which substances must have in order that they are beings.
Holz: Leibniz has to trace this back to the self-sufficiency of the substances.
Everything that happens to the soul and every substance is a consequence of its concept. The perceptions arise spontaneously from their own nature. > Spontaneity.
The soul expresses in a certain manner, for a definite time, the state of the universe according to the relations of the other bodies to it. ("Windowlessness" of the monads).
G. W. Leibniz
Philosophical Texts (Oxford Philosophical Texts) Oxford 1998
H. H. Holz
Leibniz Frankfurt 1992