|Epistemic/ontological: ontological questions relate to the existence of entities that cause perceptions - epistemic questions reflect their recognizability. The question of a principal recognizability itself is ontological and metaphysical. See also metaphysics, ontology, existence, realism, reality, perception.|
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|Holz I 58
Epistemic/ontologic/Leibniz: the ontological quality of the identity principle is not found in itself, but in sense perception.
The senses show that "A is A" is a proposition whose opposition "A is not A" includes a formal contradiction.
The senses show that the predicate is inherent in the subject and that it is a contradiction to deny it to him.
Holz: but this is not an irrational empiricism: the system of the truths of reason which apply necessarily in this possible world must be given in the facticity of this world.
But the logical on the factual is always only given by reason in the way of deduction.
This is blocked by us in direct access and must first be deduced.
In order that the pre-predicative evidence does not turn into the irrational, it must be justified in an ontological construct, in which identity proves to be the necessary structure of the manifold and the changing world. (Reflection).
G. W. Leibniz
Philosophical Texts (Oxford Philosophical Texts) Oxford 1998
H. H. Holz
Leibniz Frankfurt 1992