|Falsification: experimental or logical refutation of a general or a specific statement. Depending on the nature of the statement, there are differences in terms of whether a single counterexample is sufficient for a falsification, or a certain ratio of positive and negative cases is crucial. See also verification, verificationism, confirmation, Bayesianism, probability, hypotheses, theories.|
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|Hacking I 286
LakatosVsPopper: falsification (ism) ("Man proposes, nature disposes") cannot be right, because it presupposes the distinction theory/observation - incorrect assumptions: 1. that there is a psychological barrier between speculative and observation records - 2. that observation sentences could be proved by facts.
Cover I 15
Falsification/asymmetry/Popper: falsification applies in strict (universal sentences without exception): they cannot be verified by a finite set of observations, but they can be falsified by a single counter-example.
LakatosVsPopper: Theories are never rejected on the basis of a single counter-example, but they are adjusted.
The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes: Volume 1: Philosophical Papers (Philosophical Papers (Cambridge)) Cambridge 1980
Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften Stuttgart 1996