|Observation: detecting characteristics and behavior of objects by whatsoever contact with the object unlike conclusions from past processes or assumeded or imperceptible parts or hidden parameters. See also hidden variable, observation language, theories.|
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|Hacking I 286
Observation/LakatosVsPopper: Falsificationism cannot be correct, because it presupposes the distinction between theory and observation. The simple rule, according to which the human thinks and directs nature, is not tenable. Two wrong assumptions:
1. There is a psychological boundary between speculative and observation-related sentences.
2. The assumption that observation statements could be proved by facts.
HackingVsLakatos: these assumptions have now been mocked for 15 years, but Lakatos' argumentation is superficial. He has only one example: Galileo's observation of solar spots through a telescope:
Seeing/Lakatos: That could not have been pure seeing.
The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes: Volume 1: Philosophical Papers (Philosophical Papers (Cambridge)) Cambridge 1980
Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften Stuttgart 1996