Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Species: groups of individuals based on common characteristics. See also biological species, natural kinds.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Stuart Kauffman on Species - Dictionary of Arguments

I 310
Species/Evolution/Kauffman: it is estimated that between 99% and 99.9% of all species that have ever existed are extinct again.
Today: probably between 10 and 100 million species.
Probably between 10 and 100 billion species have emerged and disappeared in the course of time.
I 310/311
Fitness landscape/Co-evolution/Kauffman: changes when the environment changes. Predator-prey-cycles. Both have a fitness landscape, but the two are combined! Co-evolution.
Co-evolution/Kauffman: changes not only the organisms (predator/prey) but also their interrelationship! This changes not only the respective fitness landscape, but also the elasticity of their relationships.
Thus, the process of co-evolution itself is subject to evolution.
Selection/Kauffman: starts at the level of the individual. The mystery is that the emergent order of communities reflects this selection of individuals.
I 312
Predator-prey-cycle/Kauffman: either long-term transition to a steady state (parallel) or long-term shifted sinusoidal fluctuations, then "boundary cycle".
I 315
Evolution/Communities/Kauffman: Question: How do biocoenoses form? We do not know it.
When you fence an area (ecotope) the composition of the species always changes. After removing the fence, however, the original composition is not restored!
"Community fitness landscape": after the change, the community climbs another summit. At a summit, a community cannot accept new species. Saturation limit.
I 320
Problem: it does not make sense to talk about community fitness right from the start! The success of immigration does not depend directly on whether it increases the fitness of the community!
Now, however, the simulations behave as if community fitness existed. In the model (not in reality) we see here an emergent phenomenon.
Extinction events/extinction/Kauffman: the extinction of species occurs according to the pattern of avalanches in sand heaps, many small, few large avalanches, unpredictable, potency law.
N.B.: the decision on how the interrelationship between species is formed, who is predator and who is prey, is based on a random distribution.
I 320
Mitochondria/Kauffman: have penetrated the cells at some point and started the complicated interaction mechanism that has been stable for about one billion years. Highly complex problem.
Definition Mutualism: Mitochondria keep up the stable population by the speed of their divisions, the cell enjoys the energetic fruits of these efforts.
I 322
"Red Queen Effect"/Kauffman: (Alice): "You must run as fast as you can to stay in the same place".
I 323
Co-evolution/Niche/Kauffman: the goods and services in a community (economic network) exist only because they are useful as an intermediate or final product. These are the niches created by other goods and services.
Niche/Kauffman: each species lives in a niche created by other species. (>benefit for others).

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995

Kauffman I
St. Kauffman
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
German Edition:
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2021-04-11
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