|Semantics: Semantics is the field of linguistics, which deals with the meaning of expressions, words, parts of words, sentences or signs. Aids for ascertaining the meaning are investigations of the use and the determination of the truth value (true or false) of the statements, which can be determined from the linguistic or action-like utterances. Therefore, semantic questions are ultimately truth questions. See also truth, reference, meaning, sense, semiology, signs, symbols, syntax, pragmatics, linguistics._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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|Cresswell I 163
Semantics/Hans Kamp/Irene Heim/Cresswell: (Kamp 1983, Heim 1983, independent of each other):
Facts about descriptions, in particular their anaphoric use, require a representation level between surface form and logical form (surface/deep structure).
Sentence meaning/Kamp/Heim: the sentence meaning is no longer given by the truth conditions!
Description/CresswellVsHintikka/CresswellVsKamp/CresswellVsHeim: although there is a new view in terms of descriptions (among others, by Lewis 1975), we do not need a new kind of semantic theory.
Λ-categorial language/Cresswell: in it we can formulate the semantic insights of Kamp/Heim.
S: syntactic category: the syntactic category is either simple or complex.
Syntactic category 0: sentence
Syntactic category 1: name
Complex syntactic category: form
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984