|Description: A. Characterization of singular objects or events instead of giving a name. As opposed to names descriptions are not rigid, i.e. they may refer to different objects in different worlds. - B. Linguistic form for attributing predicates according to the perceptions of objects. See also rigidity, theory of descriptions._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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|Cresswell I 167
Indeterminate description/Kamp/Heim: indeterminate descriptions are not quantifiers, because real quantifiers cannot work beyond sentences, while pronouns can be connected anaphorically with undefined descriptions from earlier sentences.
(5) Everyone found a cat and kept it.
(6) It ran away.
Only that in (5) can be anaphorically related to the cat.
Cresswell I 175
Indeterminate description/Russell: conforms with existence quantification: E.g. a man: "at least a man." - New Theory/Cresswell: the indefinite article introduces new objects, the specific refers to introduced ones.
File change semantics/Home: thesis: as entities in the world the objects are not new, but only within the speech, therefore file change ("new in the documents") - File/Kamp/Home: represents facts about objects for the speaker._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984