|Article: word before a noun or a nominalization. There are definite (the) and indefinite articles (a, an).|
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|Cresswell I 175
Definite descriptions/Cresswell: so far we have only spoken about undefined descriptions!
Undefined descriptions/Russell. Thesis: a man means "at least a man".
Certain descriptions/Russell. Thesis: the man means "this particular man".
Anaphora/HintikkaVsRussell: the tradition has no explanation for the anaphoric use of certain descriptions.
Article/Cresswell: recent attempts to integrate the old linguistic idea into the traditional logic that the indefinite article introduces new objects in the speech while the definite article refers to already introduced entities. This corresponds to:
Article/Kempson: (1975, 111): thesis: definite/indefinite article should be distinguished not semantically but only pragmatically.
Article/old/new/file change semantics/Heim/Cresswell: the distinction between old and new entities in connection with the article is also found in Heim (1983).
There it leads to the file change semantics/Kamp/Heim: Thesis: as entities in the world the objects are not new, but only within the speech, therefore "files". (Files, "new in the files").
Definiton file/Heim/Cresswell: a file represents facts about objects for the speaker.
From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984