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Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Author Item Summary Meta data
Diaz-Bone I 29
JamesVsPhysiological Psychology (Lotze).
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I 44
Psychology/James: "Provisional Knowledge".
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I 50f
Psychology/James: James gains from the metaphysical re-interpretation of the (material) results of psychology findings on the constitution of the universe.
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Chalmers I 13
Psychology/William James/Wilhelm Wundt/Chalmers: Wilhelm Wundt and William James had in a Cartesian way developed psychological theories using introspection to explain behaviour, making phenomenology the arbiter of psychology. They thereby denied psychology as an autonomous domain.
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Corr I 8
Psychology/William James: Throughout the history of psychology, observers have noted a dichotomy between those who emphasize rigorous scientific methods, on the one hand, and those who are more open to subjective experience and a holistic study of the person: what William James (1902(1)) called the ‘tough-minded’ and the ‘tender-minded’. 1984). It reflects a broader intellectual rift between science and humanism, impacting both the content and methods of personality theory and research. As James indicated, the two poles arguably reflect the personalities of those on each side of the dichotomy (Conway 1992(2); Feist 2006)(3).
Cloninger: A. The ‘tough-minded’ pole, well represented in experimental laboratories modelled after that of Wilhelm Wundt, found its influence in personality through behaviourism, with the work of John B. Watson and, later, B. F. Skinner.
B. The other pole, the tender-minded or humanistic, persisted as well. For example, during the 1950s, Gardner Murphy took a more integrative stance, and a humanistic psychology movement grew, marking its entry by the establishment of the Association for Humanistic Psychology in 1962, with Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May among the founding members.


1. James, W. 1902. The varieties of religious experience; a study in human nature; being the Gifford lectures on natural religion delivered at Edinburgh in 1901–1902. New York: Modern Library
2. Conway, J. 1992. A world of differences among psychologists, Canadian Psychology 33: 1–24
3.Feist, G. J. 2006. How development and personality influence scientific thought, interest, and achievement, Review of General Psychology 10: 163–82

Susan Cloninger, “Conceptual issues in personality theory”, in: Corr, Ph. J. & Matthews, G. (eds.) 2009. The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

James I
R. Diaz-Bone/K. Schubert
William James zur Einführung Hamburg 1996

Cha I
D. Chalmers
The Conscious Mind Oxford New York 1996

Cha II
D. Chalmers
Constructing the World Oxford 2014

Corr I
Philip J. Corr
Gerald Matthews
The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology New York 2009

Corr II
Philip J. Corr (Ed.)
Personality and Individual Differences - Revisiting the classical studies Singapore, Washington DC, Melbourne 2018


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-08-05
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