|Terminologies: here, special features of the language use of the individual authors are explained._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Standard semantics/modal logic/Hintikka: Problem: the alternative worlds must be formed from the same individual domain and also from the same domain of predicates (basic term).
That is, the individuals must all already exist!
Definition scenario/Hintikka: a scenario is everything that is compatible with the knowledge of a knowing person b. We can also call it b's worlds of knowledge.
Definition relevant world/Hintikka: relevant worlds are all those which are compatible with the knowledge of a person considered here.
Definition qualitative/terminology/Hintikka: terminology corresponds to a yes-no distinction. - Contrast: the contrast is comparative.
Definition Desideratum/Hintikka: the desideratum is the piece of information that provides a complete answer to a question. E.g. (3) is the desideratum of (2).
(2) Who killed Roger Ackroyd?
(3) I know who killed Roger Ackroyd.
(3) can be analyzed as
(4) (Ex) I know that (x killed Ackroyd)
Where "x" is about people.
Definition conclusive/conclusive answer/Hintikka: an answer is conclusive iff. (5) implies (4), for example,
(5) I know that d has killed Ackroyd.
(4) (Ex) I know that (x killed Ackroyd).
Problem: normally the implication is valid, but it can be because "d" (on different occasions) does not refer to the same person.
Presupposition/Questions/Hintikka: the presupposition of a question is obtained by omitting the extreme epistemic operator ("I know that") from the desideratum of the question.
Definition matrix of a question/Hintikka: the matrix of a question is the presupposition obtained from the desideratum without the utmost epistemic operator._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Merrill B. Hintikka
The Logic of Epistemology and the Epistemology of Logic Dordrecht 1989
J. Hintikka/M. B. Hintikka
Untersuchungen zu Wittgenstein Frankfurt 1996