Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Features, philosophy: Features are fundamentally characteristics, however in the philosophical terminology according to Frege it has become natural to speak of (necessary) characteristics, but in objects of (contingent) properties. Objects do not have their properties necessarily, they can always be different. Concepts, on the other hand, have their characteristics necessarily. E.g. that circles are round is a necessary characteristic of the concept circle, but not a necessary property of drawn circles. It is, however, not the concept which has the characteristic itself, but the objects which fall under it.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
Author Item Summary Meta data
I 264
Features/Gould: derived features stem solely from one common predecessor.
A common primitive feature, on the other hand, cannot clearly refer to ancestry. For example, the presence of DNA in both ciliates and flatworms tells us nothing about their proximity to each other, because DNA occurs in all protists and metazoans.
Hanson, for example, calls the "completeness" of the cilia a "permanent" feature that occurs in both flatworms and ciliates.
Gould: however, completeness is an easily occurring evolutionary characteristic that can only be analogous.
Limit: Large animals cannot develop enough cilia on their relatively small surface to move their larger masses. The complete cilia of the flatworms could therefore be a secondary, adaptive reaction to their small body size. The tiny snake Caecum also moves forward on cilia, while all larger relatives have muscle contractions.
IV 281
Feature/Evolution/Gould: here the attribution of key features is pointless. Features that determine genera under certain conditions can vary greatly among species within another group. There are no "constant species" or "constant generic features".


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-09-24
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