Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Causality: causality is the relation between two (separate) entities, whereby a state change of the one entity causes the state of the other entity to change. Nowadays it is assumed that an energy transfer is crucial for talking about a causal link.
D. Hume was the first to consistently deny the observability of cause and effect. (David Hume Eine Untersuchung über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg, 1993, p. 95).

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
II 59
Causality/Gould: Definition Haplodiploid: the males develop from unfertilized eggs and have no father. Fertilized eggs, on the other hand, produce diploid females. This can be used to control the number of females.
II 57
This fascinating system can help explain the origin of social systems in ants. Or that a male mite dies before its own birth, for example, after fertilising its sisters in the womb.
The biologists were so fascinated by these observations that a subtle reversal of causality has crept into many descriptions: the very existence of haplodiploidism is elegantly associated with the decision "for" a better social system such as in ants.
II 61
GouldVs: Haplodiploid ancestors were certainly not completely social, this has only developed as a "phylogenetic additional thought" in some independent tribes.
Environment of such tribes: every single female! Even a not full-grown one becomes a possible founder of new colonies, as it is able to produce a generation of males, with which it can mate to create a new generation of females.
Frequent error: that the instantaneous usefulness of a property would allow to deduce the reasons for its origin.
Origin and current usefulness, however, are two very different subjects.
Complex properties are full of possibilities: their conceivable uses are not limited to their original functions.
For example, the fish's fins of equilibrium became the driving elements.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-09-24
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