Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Analogy: formal parallelism. Intends show that from a similar case, similar conclusions can be drawn.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
II 241
Analogies/Science/Gould: GouldVsSociobiology: Zoocentrism is the primary fallacy of sociobiology: if animals develop with primary mechanisms and structures as products of natural selection, then human behaviour must have a similar basis!
Sociobiology is about the idea that a behaviour point in humans must also be "natural" if it looks similar in animals. These are misleading similarities.
For example, they associate human names with the actions of other beings and speak of enslavement in the ants, rape in the wild ducks and adultery in the mountain bluethroat.
Since these "character traits" exist in the "lower" animals, they can be derived as "natural" genetic and adaptive for humans.
GouldVsSociobiology: But they never existed outside a human context of meaning.
No one can claim that two behaviours are really homologous: that is, are based on the same genes! (> Behavior).
If the similarity is significant, it can only be analogous, i. e. it reflects different phylogenetic (phylogenetic: concerning the phylogeny) origins, but serves the same biological function. Different origins - the same function.
GouldVsZoocentrism: Zoocentric systems fail mainly because they are never what they pretend to be. The "objective" animal behaviour is from the very beginning an imposition of human preferences.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

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> Counter arguments against Gould
> Counter arguments in relation to Analogies

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2019-06-18
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