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|Brandom I 310ff
Knowledge/Causal Theory/Facades Example/Alvin Goldman/Brandom: the causal theory of knowledge is intended to show the uselessness of an analysis which the cognitive authority of noninferent observation reports wants to fix exclusively on characteristics of the causal chain.
Definition Causal Theory of Knowledge/Brandom: an observation is considered knowledge if it is caused by exactly the right way of what it is about. (GoldmanVsCausal Theory of Knowledge)
For example: barns: in a certain province, deceptively real façades of barns are built up. Everyone who knows nothing about the hobby of the local people will be convinced to see real barns and not just facades.
Goldman: the assertion of a resident of the true barns province expresses genuine knowledge, the assertion of a resident of the barn facade province expresses no knowledge.
Here it is just coincidence when he actually looks at a real barn.
1. One must go beyond the causal prehistory of a belief.
2. The difference in circumstances has an influence on the assessment of entitlement (even if they are causally irrelevant!)
This can be explained by terms of reliability based on the circumstances. (Probability, quantity).
E.g. Quantity: someone builds deceptively real sparrow mockups. As long as there are only a few copies of this genre of mockups, I am still a reliable judge of real sparrows. The probability that I am wrong, however, does not depend on my visual acuity, but on the frequency of occurrence of mockups!
Reliability: reliability provides exactly the term used to explain cases such as the barn example.
Goldman's example underlines the possibility of Gerrymandering: it is a matter of whether one is in the barn province, in the facade province, or on the border between the two, in order to assign values to the probability of the truth of assertions.
Reliability/Goldman: Reliability is an objective property; it is not based on perceptibility, but on objective probabilities. The metaphors of the borders become concrete!
Alvin I. Goldman
Reliabilism and Contemporary Epistemology: Essays Oxford 2015
Expressive Vernunft Frankfurt 2000
Begründen und Begreifen Frankfurt 2001