# Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Decidability: a question, for example, whether a property applies to an object or not, is decidable if a result can be achieved within a finite time. For this decision process, an algorithm is chosen as a basis. See also halting problem, algorithms, procedures, decision theory.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data

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II 206
Compressibility/Decidability/Genz: there can be no computer program that decides if any amount of data is compressible.
stronger: there is no way to prove that it is not compressible.
Compressibility: can be proven but not refuted.
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II 207
Example number pi/?: can be generated by a finite program.
There are numbers that cannot be calculated in principle:
Omega/Chaitin/Genz: this is what Chaitin calls a certain number of which not a single digit can be calculated. It is not accessible to any rule, it is outside mathematics.
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II 218
Decidability/Calculability/undecidable/non-calculable/Genz: non-calculable numbers are actually the same as non-decidable numbers.
Incalculability/physics/quantum cosmology/Genz: apparent unpredictability: that of the wave-function ? of the universe. It deals with the possible geometry of three-dimensional spaces.
simplified: e. g. a circle (one dimensional): to calculate the wave function of the universe for the circle as an argument: the wave function can be represented as a sum of summands, where there is a series of handleless cups, one with cups with a handle, a row with cups with two handles, etc., whereby the handles can be shaped differently in each case. These represent four-dimensional spaces. (With time as 4th dimension).
Circle: here time is added as the 2nd dimension. Together they form the two dimensions of the cup surfaces.
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II 219
3rd dimension: in which the surfaces are embedded, serves only as an illustration. It has no equivalent in reality.
Problem: it is not possible to decide which cups are to be regarded as the same, which cups are to be regarded as different. (cups with differently shaped handles have the same topology).
Question: undecidable: whether two cups have the same or different number of handles. (Of course, this is about four, not two dimensions.
Indecidability/Genz: occurs here only if a computer is to perform the calculation: to describe a cup, it is covered with a certain number of equal triangles.
Problem: there cannot be a computer program that decides for any number of covering flat triangles whether two (four-dimensional) cups have the same number of handles.
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II 220
Theorem: the theorem is rather tame: it now excludes that a program makes a decision for any number of flat triangles, but not for a given number - e. g. one million - flat triangles. This is simply a matter of increasing accuracy.
That would be an example of an unpredictable number.
Wave function of the Universe/Genz: it could be shown that there are calculable representations of it, so that its incalculability (similar to that of > NOPE) suggested by the regulation of the figure does not actually exist.
Definition NOPE/Genz: the smallest number that can only be determined by more than thirteen words minus the smallest number that can only be determined by more than thirteen words
N.B.: the rule is impracticable, but we still know that NOPE = 0!
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II 223
Problem/Genz: there cannot be a program that decides in finite time if any program ever stops.
"Stopping problem"/"Non-stopping theorem"/Genz: is not a logical but a physical problem. It is impossible to perform infinitely many logical steps in finite time.
Time travel/time reversal/time/decision problem/Genz: if time travel were possible, the stopping problem would only be valid to a limited extent.
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II 224
Stopping problem/Platonism/Genz: in a platonic world where there are only logical steps instead of time, the non-stopping theorem would also be valid. The point here is the admissibility of evidence rather than its feasibility.

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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Gz I
H. Genz
Gedankenexperimente Weinheim 1999

Gz II
Henning Genz
Wie die Naturgesetze Wirklichkeit schaffen. Über Physik und Realität München 2002

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-11-22