|Knowledge: Knowledge is a conscious relationship to sentences or propositions, which legitimately attributes to them truth or falsehood. What is known is true. Conversely, it does not apply that everything that is true is also known. See also knowledge how, propositional knowledge, realism, abilities, competence, truth, facts, situations, language, certainty, beliefs, omniscience, logical knowledge, reliability_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Knowledge/16th century/Foucault: (savoir) thus consists in referring language to language. One speaks on the basis of a language that is one with the world. Every discourse, however, is addressed to the first script, which at the same time promises and postpones it. The experience of language belongs to the same archaeological raster as the knowledge of the things of nature.
Definition knowledge/Foucault: Speaking, how one has to speak.
Knowledge/Language/Foucault: The affiliation of language to knowledge frees an entire historical field, which had not existed in the preceding epochs. Something like the history of knowledge becomes possible.
The language is, in a sense, its meaningless envelope.
A story of the meaning, of belief, of superstition of every order, is written, but the writings are less good witnesses than the words themselves.
The old relationship to the text, through which the renaissance defined the erudition, has been transformed; it has become the relation to the pure element of language in the classic.
Knowledge/19th century/Foucault: not anymore space of knowledge of identities and differences, of non-quantitative order, but new: characterized by organizations, that is, of internal relations between the elements whose totality assures a function. These organizations are continuously. New forms:
Analogy and sequence (19th century): not anymore identity of elements, but identity of the relationship between the elements. History gives the analogous organizations space.
Definition knowledge/Foucault: the quantity of elements regularly formed by a discursive practice and indispensable for the constitution of a science, although these are not necessarily intended to induce this constitution.
Not the sum of what we have seen as true, but the totality of behaviors, peculiarities, and deviations about which one can speak in discourse.
It is also the space in which the subject is located that can occupy a position. The totality of the functions of the look, the questioning, the deciphering, the registration, the decision, which the subject can exercise in discourse. The field of coordination and subordination of statements. The totality of the ways and positions according to which new statements can be integrated.
No knowledge without definite discursive practice. Any discursive practice can be determined by the knowledge that forms it.
Archeology/Foucault: instead of following the axis consciousness, epistemology, science (which cannot be freed from the index of subjectivity), it follows the axis
discursive practice, knowledge, science. Central: Knowledge in cases where the subject does not appear as the owner.
Ideological history: central: insight, subjectivity.
Knowledge: not only in demonstrations, but also infections, reflections, reports, regulations, decisions.
Question: according to which principle does the advancement of a domain of science occur in a given discursive formation?_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines , Paris 1966 - The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences, New York 1970
Die Ordnung der Dinge. Eine Archäologie der Humanwissenschaften Frankfurt/M. 1994
l’Archéologie du savoir, Paris 1969
Archäologie des Wissens Frankfurt/M. 1981