Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Contradictions, philosophy: A. Contradiction in a broad sense is conceived in philosophy, for example, in Hegel or Marx, as a fruitful contrast, which gives rise to a further development. B. In bivalent logic, a contradictory statement is a statement of the form A and non-A. Statements of this form cannot be true. See also consistency, theorem of contradiction, multi-valued logic.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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II, 213ff
Coherence/Foucault: Idea history usually requires coherence. A heuristic rule, almost a moral constraint of research. But this coherence is also the result of research. How to define the last units that complete the analysis.
The means employed in research are very numerous, the found coherence can be very different. It tries to achieve an ideal architecture.
Coherence always plays the same role in all different forms and areas: to show that the visible contradictions are nothing but a shimmering of the surface. The analysis must therefore suppress the contradiction.
Contradiction/Foucault: is far from being the appearance and randomness of the discourse. In reality, it is the real law of the existence of discourse. The discourse emerges from it.
The discourse speaks at the same time to translate the contradiction and to overcome it. The contradiction changes with the discourse and escapes its own continuity. In the course of the discourse the contradiction thus fulfills the function of the principle of its historicity.
Discourse: is the path from one contradiction to the next.
Contradiction: for archeology, objects which, for their own sake, must be described without being examined from which point of view they can be dissolved. For example, the principle of rigidity of Linné: he was contradicted in the eighteenth century (precursor of evolution theory).
The archaeological analysis is not to show that underneath this opposition everyone accepted many theses.
Archeology: it describes the different spaces of the disunion. It sees the contradiction not as a general function, but as many different.
Contradiction: Outer: between different discursive information. Derived/inside. (The latter are significant for archaeological analysis.)
Consider, for example, the totality of a plant, in the other case arbitrarily selected elements.
E.g. once growth stages, then again optimal visibility. Incompatibility of terms. Exclusion.
There are no new objects, no new terms, no new statement modalities. Rather, objects of another (more general or particular) level, concepts which have a different structure and a different application field, expressions of another type, without, however, altering the formation rules.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Fouc I
M. Foucault
The Order of Things: An Archaeology of Human Sciences 1994

Fouc II
Michel Foucault
Archäologie des Wissens Frankfurt/M. 1981


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-10-20