Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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I 279
Natural history: change between 1775 and 1795: the principle of classifications is not called into question. "Essential feature" Difference:
Old view: for the systematics the representative elements were determined from the beginning.
New: methodologists: for them, the representation only comes off almightily in the advancing confrontation.
1. Hierarchy of features: some are absolutely constant and are missing in no genre or species. Others are less constant. With them a definition of families or orders is impossible. They are not essential.
2. Function of the features: functions are connected with the characteristics. Old view: the essence is fixed at the visible point. New: the feature is not created by a relationship of the visible to itself.
3. Concept of life: a relationship in the depth of the body that connects the organs to the surface.
Classification: new: does no longer mean referring the visible to itself, but to a deeper cause.
4. Parallelism between classification and nomenclature is resolved by this fact.
Thought image/Foucault: Relationship between the organization's space and that of the nomenclature: instead of covering one another, they will be perpendicular to each other.
Similarity: presupposes the examination of the whole organization of the species.
The name and genre, designation and classification, language and nature cease to intersect. The order of the words and the order of the beings are only found in an artificially defined line.
Language: one begins to talk about things that stand in a space other than the words.
Order/Classic: certain way of composition of elementary substances. (> Classification/Linné, Species/Linné).
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Gould II 70
Klassifikation/Gould: Geschichtliche Veränderungen der Klassifikationen sind die versteinerten Anzeichen gedanklicher Umstürze.
Gould II 71
Klassifikation/Foucault/Gould: Warum sollte man die Armen, die Arbeitslosen und die Geisteskranken in einer Gruppe zusammenfassen?
Foucault argumentiert, dass die Geburt der modernen Handelsgesellschaften zu einer neuen Definition der Kardinalssünde geführt habe, die unsichtbar gemacht werden müsse, indem man sie wegsperrt. Diese Sünde war die Untätigkeit.(1)
Gould II 72
Foucault: These: Die Dinge, die aus den Taxonomien ausgespart werden, sind genauso wichtig, wie die einbezogenen.

1. M. Foucault,


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Foucault I
M. Foucault
Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines , Paris 1966 - The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences, New York 1970
German Edition:
Die Ordnung der Dinge. Eine Archäologie der Humanwissenschaften Frankfurt/M. 1994

Foucault II
Michel Foucault
l’Archéologie du savoir, Paris 1969
German Edition:
Archäologie des Wissens Frankfurt/M. 1981

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-06-05
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