|Science: A. Science is a) an inventory of statements on defined subject domains obtained with certain methods, rules and instruments as well as b) a set of methods, instruments and rules for obtaining new statements on the same subject domain. B. Groups of people who are counted to a subject area, whereby these groups are being formed by the common acceptance of methods, rules, instruments and the limitation of the subject areas. See also observation, observability, methods, systems, theories, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, verification._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Science/Irrationality/Feyerabend: the "irrational" approach is necessary because of the "uneven development" (Marx, Lenin) of the different parts of science. Copernicanism and other essential elements of modern science only remain alive, because in their history reason has often been overuled!
Science/Feyerabend: the theoretical authority of science is much lower than one assumes, but its social authority has grown enormously.
Research/Einstein: recommended to separate research and profession.
Theory of Science/Feyerabend: these reflections on archaic art can be combined with science theory:
1) E.g. perspective: we might assume that it was so obvious that it could not have been missing at the time.
Solution: Shortcuts are not an obvious feature of our world of perception, as long as attention is not particularly directed to them. And why should the world of perception of the Greeks be the same as ours?
2) Method: by which method were the special features of the archaic cosmology worked out? With that of the anthropologist who tried to identify the "key ideals".
3) Concept: the researcher must never attempt to make a concept clearer than the material suggests (except as a temporary tool for further investigation).
4) Incommensurability: the meaning of sentences is only understood incompletely. Hempel: only wants to recognize incommensurability after the concept of meaning used therein is explained.
5) Logic: logicians will raise objections: the investigation of the meaning of sentences and the relations between concepts is the task of logic and not of anthropology.
Logic/Feyerabend: Logic can be two things:
A) the study of the structures of a particular subject (anthropology) or
B) a specific logical system.
Anthropology/Feyerabend: In order to recognize whether "AB v AB' equi A" is part of the quantum theory, we will have to study the quantum theory, and not logic! It is necessary to study historical records, textbooks, original papers, minutes of meetings, and so on. Admittedly, these records alone do not provide a clear solution. But also historical evidence does not provide a clear solution to historical problems! And no one thinks they should be disregarded because of that.
Science/Feyerabend: does not refer to facts and laws, but to methods and activities of the scientist! Its investigation is an anthropological one.
Science/Einstein/Feyerabend: Einstein repeatedly emphasizes the opportunistic nature of scientific research.
Science/FeyerabendVsKuhn: the delineations of traditions and subjects, on which Kuhn and Polanyi base their thesis of the untouchability of science, are transient stages of the historical process.
Science today is a business that unintentionally reinforces the totalitarian tendencies of society. Thus, the objection of Kuhn is settled._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Against Method. Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge, London/New York 1971
Wider den Methodenzwang Frankfurt 1997
Science in a Free Society, London/New York 1982
Erkenntnis für freie Menschen Frankfurt 1979