|Science: A. Science is a) an inventory of statements on defined subject domains obtained with certain methods, rules and instruments as well as b) a set of methods, instruments and rules for obtaining new statements on the same subject domain. B. Groups of people who are counted to a subject area, whereby these groups are being formed by the common acceptance of methods, rules, instruments and the limitation of the subject areas. See also observation, observability, methods, systems, theories, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, verification._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Pierre Duhem on Science - Dictionary of Arguments
Science/Logic/Duhem: Which logical conditions must be fulfilled in the hypothesis selection? Does the logic require that our hypothesis be, or at least be in harmony with a cosmological system? Not at all! Our physical theories do not place their pride in being explanations (metaphysical). They are not assumptions about the actual nature of material things. They have only the economic summary and classification of the experimental laws as their goal. They are independent and independent of any metaphysical system.
Does logic require that the hypotheses by induction be generalized experimental laws? No: logic cannot make impossible demands. We are therefore not reluctant to include postulates under the foundations of physics which were not supplied by the experiment.
Logic also does not dictate us to introduce our hypotheses individually and to control them individually before application. That would be absurd because of holism.
What conditions must now be fulfilled according to logic in the choice of hypotheses?
1. No self-contradictory theorem is acceptable.
2. No reciprocal contradiction.
3. The conclusions which the mathematical derivation can draw from the totality are, to represent the totality of the experimental laws with reasonable approximation._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
La théorie physique, son objet et sa structure, Paris 1906
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998