|Metaphysics: is a theory that has the claim to ask questions and provide answers beyond our available knowledge. It is objected that even for asking questions, a knowledge of the meanings of the words used is required. This knowledge is not given when experiences or at least theories using these terms are not available. See also essentialism, metaphysical possibility.|
Books on Amazon
Metaphysics/Duhem: E.g. Acoustic theories are explanations and therefore metaphysical ((s) since they explain or justify perceptible things with non-perceptible ones). Explanations are always metaphysical, since they have reality as their subject. Science must adhere to the results of the experiment.
Duhem: in most cases, a physical theory cannot attain such a degree of perfection that it offers a certain explanation of our sense perception. They are content to show that all our perceptions appear as if reality were such: hypothetical explanation. E.g. wave theory of light, ether.
The physical theories are subordinate to the metaphysical ones.
DuhemVsMetaphysics: remains inexplicable for its own followers, since it makes assumptions that are not given by its own system.
Duhem: metaphysics explains, physics describes.
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998