|Falsification: experimental or logical refutation of a general or a specific statement. Depending on the nature of the statement, there are differences in terms of whether a single counterexample is sufficient for a falsification, or a certain ratio of positive and negative cases is crucial. See also verification, verificationism, confirmation, Bayesianism, probability, hypotheses, theories._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Pierre Duhem on Falsification - Dictionary of Arguments
Verification/Confirmation/Examination/Duhem: If the announced fact does not arise, the theorem is falsified. In the examination one applies a whole group of theories (according to which the instruments are built and without which they cannot be read). The occurrence or non-occurrence of the phenomenon does not result from the contentious theorem alone, but from the connection with the whole group. The failing experiment merely teaches that among all the theorems which have served to predict or to state the phenomenon, at least one must be false. If the experimenter declares that the error lies precisely in the proposition to be tested, he presupposes that all others are true.
Confidence in the other sentences (for example, according to which the instruments are constructed and according to which they are read) does not occur with logical necessity.
Physics is not a machine that can be dismantled. It is a system when a disturbance occurs, it has indeed been evoked by the whole system. (> System). The physicist must find the organ without being able to isolate it, because then the system does no longer work._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
La théorie physique, son objet et sa structure, Paris 1906
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998