Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Observation: detecting characteristics and behavior of objects by whatsoever contact with the object unlike conclusions from past processes or assumeded or imperceptible parts or hidden parameters. See also hidden variable, observation language, theories.
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I 264
Observation/Duhem: is always leaded by theories. No experimental law can serve the theorist before it is subjected to an interpretation that transforms it into a symbolic law. This transformation involves the recognition of a whole group of other theories.
I 266
Under different translations, the theorist must choose the one that gives a fertile hypothesis without the experiment somehow leading his choice.
A chimera is pursued by separating any hypothesis of theoretical physics from the other assumptions on which this science is based, in order to place it isolated in the control of observation. The only experimental control which is not illogical consists in the complete comparison of the whole group of experimental facts with the complete system of physical theory.

Duh I
P. Duhem
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-28