Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Axiom: principle or rule for linking elements of a theory that is not proven within the theory. It is assumed that axioms are true and evident. Adding or eliminating axioms turns a system into another system. Accordingly, more or less statements can be constructed or derived in the new system. > System.
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I 352
Hypotheses/Duhem: It is wrong to believe that the introduction of certain hypotheses is justified by means of theorems that are, so to speak, evidently derived from ordinary life.

Often an analogy is quite superficial: it consists only between the words, but not between the thoughts. Nothing but word games.
E.g. The expression entropy has only a meaning in the language of the physicist.
I 355
Euler commits a circular conclusion: Definition: A power is the force that brings a body from rest to movement ...

DuhemVsEuler: Will Euler take away the very former sense of the word power, and give a simple word definition, whose arbitrariness is limited by nothing? (> Definition) word definition arbitrary)...
Euler has force or used in the everyday sense
It is much less a definition than a theorem, to which Euler ascribes obviousness, it is an axiom.

Duh I
P. Duhem
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998

> Counter arguments against Duhem
> Counter arguments in relation to Axioms

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-24