|Learning: learning is acquiring the ability to establish relationships between signs, symptoms or symbols and objects. This also includes e.g. recognition and recollection of patterns, similarities, sensory perceptions, self-perception, etc. In the ideal case, the ability to apply generalizations to future cases is acquired while learning. See also knowledge, knowledge-how, competence._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Books on Amazon:
|I Fred Dretske Minimale Rationalität in D.Perler/M. Wild (Hg.)Der Geist der Tiere
Learning/Behavior/Animal/Consciousness/Dretske: E.g. birds avoid certain butterflies that make them vomit.
Now there are non-toxic butterflies that mimic the color of these poisonous. Now we can ask: why did the bird not eat it? We know why but we have to choose our words carefully: because he does not want to get sick again, but what he saw was not a disgusting insect. No recognition has taken place.
The bird thinks (wrongly) that the insect tastes bad.
The thought directs his behavior. Similar causal behavior as with the thermostat and the plant. So there is something inside the bird, which means (like the bimetallic strip in the thermostat) that an m-kind insect is present, and a switch is actuated.
Unlike the thermostat and the plant: however, the representation for the behavior is directly relevant to the bird.
Purpose: but is the behavior of the bird purposeful? Is the bird thinking of something?
The meaning of the internal element is genuinely explanatory. ((s) but for us, not for the bird).
Thinking/Animal/Dretske: for me this sounds sufficiently of thoughts, in order not to have to bargain what is still missing._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Naturalizing the Mind Cambridge 1997