Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Meaning: Differs from the reference object (reference). The object does not have to exist for an expression to have a meaning. Words are not related to objects in a one-to-one correspondence. There is an important distinction between word meaning and sentence meaning. See also use theory, sentence meaning, reference, truth.
Author Item Excerpt Meta data

Books on Amazon
Cresswell II 134
Meaning/Preposition/Dretske/Hyperintensionality/Cresswell: also Dretske, (1972) looks at some (which he does not call "semantic prepositions"): e.g. "erroneously" in connection with different stresses.
Stress/Truths conditions/Dretske: although there is no difference in the truth conditions with different stresses on different sentence parts: E.g.

(4) Clyde gave me THE TICKETS.


(5) Clyde gave ME the tickets.

N.B.: with the preposition "erroneously" this changes: here there is a difference in meaning with differently stressed sentences. And thus a truth-conditional difference.

(6) Clyde mistakenly gave me THE TICKETS.

is wrong, however

(7) Clyde mistakenly gave ME the tickets.

is true.
Solution/Stechow: Distinguishing between object (topic) and focus (center point). The focus is what is involved in the difference.

Dret I
F. Dretske
Naturalizing the Mind Cambridge 1997

Cr I
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988

M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984

> Counter arguments against Dretske
> Counter arguments in relation to Meaning

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-05-29