|Meaning: Differs from the reference object (reference). The object does not have to exist for an expression to have a meaning. Words are not related to objects in a one-to-one correspondence. There is an important distinction between word meaning and sentence meaning. See also use theory, sentence meaning, reference, truth._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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|Cresswell II 134
Meaning/Preposition/Dretske/Hyperintensionality/Cresswell: also Dretske, (1972) looks at some (which he does not call "semantic prepositions"): e.g. "erroneously" in connection with different stresses.
Stress/Truths conditions/Dretske: although there is no difference in the truth conditions with different stresses on different sentence parts: E.g.
(4) Clyde gave me THE TICKETS.
(5) Clyde gave ME the tickets.
N.B.: with the preposition "erroneously" this changes: here there is a difference in meaning with differently stressed sentences. And thus a truth-conditional difference.
(6) Clyde mistakenly gave me THE TICKETS.
is wrong, however
(7) Clyde mistakenly gave ME the tickets.
Solution/Stechow: Distinguishing between object (topic) and focus (center point). The focus is what is involved in the difference._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Naturalizing the Mind Cambridge 1997
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984