|Science: A. Science is a) an inventory of statements on defined subject domains obtained with certain methods, rules and instruments as well as b) a set of methods, instruments and rules for obtaining new statements on the same subject domain. B. Groups of people who are counted to a subject area, whereby these groups are being formed by the common acceptance of methods, rules, instruments and the limitation of the subject areas. See also observation, observability, methods, systems, theories, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, verification._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Duhem I 53
Descartes: "In physics, I do not admit any principles that are not permissible in mathematics. These principles are sufficient to support everything that I deduce with evidence.
Descartes: the human knows the very essence of matter, which consists in extension; he/she can, therefore, deduce all properties of matter from it in a logical way.
The intellect does not proceed from the knowledge of the phenomena to arrive at the knowledge of matter, but it first understands the true nature of matter, from which the explanation of the phenomena results.
Descartes: E.g. the watchmaker can make two watches, both of which display the hours equally correctly, but which consist of different gear sets. In the same way, God has been able to produce all things visible in several different ways without the human mind being able to recognize the means he actually used._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
La théorie physique, son objet et sa structure, Paris 1906
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998