Animal/Information/Deception/Dawkins: can animals lie, i.e. deliberately give false information?
Mr. and Mrs. Gardner: Thesis: chimpanzees can deceive and lie.
DawkinsVs: instead, I speak of an effect that functionally corresponds to deception.
E.g. A bird emits a warning call to secure food for himself alone. We should only say that he got food at the expense of the others.
Deception/Genes/Dawkins: since we grew up with the idea that evolution served the "well-being of the species", we naturally assume that liars and deceived each belong to different species.
But instead we must even expect children to deceive their parents, wives to deceive their husbands, and brothers lying to each other.
Animal/Psychology/Nicholas Humphrey: Thesis: socially living beings must develop a psychology.
Relativity Selection/Dawkins: to determine the degree of relationship actuarial weightings can be used as a basis. How much of my wealth would I invest in the life of another individual.
An animal can behave as if it had done this calculation. E.g. just as a human catches a ball as if he had solved a series of differential equations.
Animal/Knowledge/Behavior/Dawkins: the average values a researcher determined for the behavior of a group of lions were in a certain way also at the disposal of the lions themselves! Form of Thought.
Estimates of the degree of relationship by an animal and a zoologist may be roughly amount to the same.
If this has been going on for generations, the selection may have favored a degree of altruism that corresponds to the average degree of relationship in a pack._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Selfish Gene, Oxford 1976
Das egoistische Gen, Hamburg 1996
M. St. Dawkins
Through Our Eyes Only? The Search for Animal Consciousness, Oxford/New York/Heidelberg 1993
Die Entdeckung des tierischen Bewusstseins Hamburg 1993