|Deception, philosophy: A deception is an idea that diverges from what would have been expected by the way in which this idea was caused, when the expectation or expectability is based on past experience or shared experiences and expectations of a community of subjects. See also error, causal theory of knowledge, reliability theory, knowledge, certainty, objectivity, intersubjectivity._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.|
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Animal/Information/Deception/Dawkins: can animals lie, i.e deliberately give false information?
Mr. and Mrs. Gardner: Thesis chimpanzees can deceive and lie.
DawkinsVs: instead, I speak of an effect that functionally corresponds to deception.
E.g. a bird emits a warning call to secure food for himself alone. We should only say that he got food at the expense of the others.
Deception/Genes/Dawkins: since we grew up with the idea that evolution serves the "well-being of the species", we naturally assume that liars and deceived belong to different species.
But we must even expect children to deceive their parents, wives to deceive their husbands, and brothers lying to each other.
Animal/Psychology/Nicholas Humphrey: Thesis Socially living beings must develop a psychology._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Das egoistische Gen, Hamburg 1996
M. St. Dawkins
Die Entdeckung des tierischen Bewusstseins Hamburg 1993