|Criteria: do not follow from a definition but must be developed. The criteria for the application of a concept to an object are more concerned with language practice in a community. E.g. the definition of truth does not provide a criterion for which sentences are true.|
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Gene/Selection/Dawkins: under reasonable consideration, selection does not directly affect the genes! The DNA is spun into proteins, wrapped in membranes, shielded from the world and invisible to natural selection. (Like GouldVsDawkins.)
The selection would also hardly have a criterion for DNA molecules. All genes look the same just like all tapes look the same! Genes show in their effects!
(S) effect creates identity.)
Das egoistische Gen, Hamburg 1996
M. St. Dawkins
Die Entdeckung des tierischen Bewusstseins Hamburg 1993