Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Gould II 329
Darwin: 2 stages of evolution
1) Random range of variation (production of raw material)
2) Selection as a conventional force.
Gould II 331
The official definition of evolution/Gould:
Def Evolution: "Change of gene frequencies in populations". (The process of random increase or decrease in the gene frequency is called
Def "genetic drift".)
The new theory of neutralism suggests that many, if not most, of the genes in individual populations owe their frequency primarily to chance.
Mayr V 235
Darwin (early): change by adaption. - Vs: adaption can never explain the enormous diversity of organic life, because there is no increase in the number of species.

Mayr V 236
Darwin/Mayr: The Origin of Species: 5 Main Theories
1) Organisms are constantly evolving over time (evolution as such).
2) Different types of organisms are derived from a common ancestor.
3) Species multiply over time (speciation)
4) Evolution takes place in the form of gradual change. (GradualismVsSaltationism).
5) The evolutionary mechanism consists in the competition of subordinate unique individuals for limited resources that lead to differences in survival and reproduction (natural selection).

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Gd I
Stephen Jay Gould
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Stephen Jay Gould
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Stephen Jay Gould
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Stephen Jay Gould
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-01-22