Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Charles Darwin on Evolution - Dictionary of Arguments

Gould II 329
Darwin: 2 stages of evolution
1) Random range of variation (production of raw material)
2) Selection as a conventional force.
Gould II 331
The official definition of evolution/Gould:
Def Evolution: "Change of gene frequencies in populations". (The process of random increase or decrease in the gene frequency is called
Def "genetic drift".)
The new theory of neutralism suggests that many, if not most, of the genes in individual populations owe their frequency primarily to chance.
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Mayr I 235
Darwin (early): change by adaption. - Vs: adaption can never explain the enormous diversity of organic life, because there is no increase in the number of species.

Mayr I 236
Darwin/Mayr: The Origin of Species: 5 Main Theories
1) Organisms are constantly evolving over time (evolution as such).
2) Different types of organisms are derived from a common ancestor.
3) Species multiply over time (speciation)
4) Evolution takes place in the form of gradual change. (GradualismVsSaltationism).
5) The evolutionary mechanism consists in the competition of subordinate unique individuals for limited resources that lead to differences in survival and reproduction (natural selection).
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Gould IV 357
Evolution/Darwin: Thesis: no inner dynamics drives life forward! If the environment really did not change, it would not be impossible for evolution to come to a standstill crunchingly!
Actually, the species lead their lives independently of each other! Their most important battles take place against climate, geological and geographical conditions. (>Species).


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

Mayr I
Ernst Mayr
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
German Edition:
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2022-09-25
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