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|Gould II 329
Darwin: 2 stages of evolution
1) Random range of variation (production of raw material)
2) Selection as a conventional force.
Gould II 331
The official definition of evolution/Gould:
Def Evolution: "Change of gene frequencies in populations". (The process of random increase or decrease in the gene frequency is called
Def "genetic drift".)
The new theory of neutralism suggests that many, if not most, of the genes in individual populations owe their frequency primarily to chance.
Mayr V 235
Darwin (early): adaptation change. Vs: can never explain the enormous diversity of organic life, because there is no increase in the number of species.
Mayr V 236
Darwin/Mayr: The Origin of Species: 5 Main Theories
1) Organisms are constantly evolving over time (evolution as such).
2) Different types of organisms are derived from a common ancestor.
3) Species multiply over time (speciation)
4) Evolution takes place in the form of gradual change. (GradualismVsSaltationism).
5) The evolutionary mechanism consists in the competition of subordinate unique individuals for limited resources that lead to differences in survival and reproduction (natural selection).
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998