|Facts, philosophy: facts are that which corresponds to a true statement or - according to some authors - is identical with a true statement. Problems result from possible multiple counting of objects, e.g. when it is spoken of a situation and additionally by the fact that this situation exists. Therefore, some authors consider the assumption of facts as something superfluous. See also truths of reason, factual truths, facts, truth, statements, knowledge, certainty, thought objects._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Definition Positive Fact/Chalmers: A positive fact in world W is one that applies in every possible world that contains W as a real part, correspondingly a positive property in W is one that is instantiated in every world containing W as a real part. (Chalmers I 363: Containment of possible worlds.)
On the other hand:
Negative facts always imply negative existence statements, which cannot be evaluated locally on their part.
We will restrict ourselves to positive facts and properties when considering supervenience.
Negative Facts/Chalmers: Facts that involve negative existence statements are not logically determined by any localizable facts. Even facts about conscious experience cannot help here. ((Chalmers I 369 Negative facts and logical supervenience ...+...).
Solution/Chalmers: we must introduce a second-level fact which, according to the enumeration of the microphysical, phenomenal, indexical, etc. facts says:
"This is all." All the negative facts follow from the fact of the second level together with all the basic single facts.
Reductive explanation: negative facts are not a serious problem for reductionist explanations.
2nd level fact/Chalmers: there will be probably a statement "that is all" for every possible world and such a fact is never included in the single facts. It merely expresses the finite nature of our world or of any other world. It is a simple way to deal with negative and universally quantified facts. (> Universal quantification, > Lists, inside/outside, > totality).
Facts/World/Chalmers: Facts about the world are exhausted by
1. Physical single facts
2. Facts about conscious experience
3. Natural laws
4. A fact of the 2nd level, which means "This is all."
5. An indexical fact about my localization._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The Conscious Mind Oxford New York 1996
Constructing the World Oxford 2014