|Information, information theory: A character or a character combination contains information when it is clear to the recipient that this character or the character combination appears instead of another possible character or a possible character combination. The supply of possible characters determines to a part the probability of the occurrence of a character from this supply. In addition, the expected probability of the appearance of a character can be increased by already experienced experiences of regularities. The amount of information transmitted by a character depends on the improbability of the occurrence of the character.|
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Information/Chalmers: (I draw upon Shannon 1948)
Information in this sense is not always about something. It is rather the choice of possibilities. Choosing a point from a 3-dimensional space carries more information than a point from a 2-dimensional one. > Complexity).
Information state: an information state can be viewed as a waveform, or another function with a continuous range of functions and values.
Information space: the information space has two types of structure: each complex state will have an internal structure (the combinatorial structure) and each element in this state will belong to a subspace with its own topological structure (the relational structure).
Information space/Chalmers: informartion space (different from Dretske 1981 and Barwise/Perry 1983) is independent of further considerations with regard to semantic content.
Information: we can find information in the physical as well as the phenomenal world.
The structure of the information space will correspond to a structure of the effect space.
Transferability principle: Physically realized information is only information, if it can be processed (see Mackay 1969). This corresponds to the transferability in Shannon.
Message/Shannon: Information sets must be separated to count as individual messages. When two physical states of a system are transformed into the same signal, they count as the same message.
Phenomenal Information/Chalmers: there are natural patterns of differences between phenomenal states. These provide the difference structure for an information space. Therefore, we can assume that phenomenal states realize information states. Since every experience has natural similarity and distinction relations, we will always find suitable information spaces.
The Conscious Mind Oxford New York 1996
Constructing the World Oxford 2014