|Brains in a vat, philosophy: thought experiment of Hilary Putnam (in Reason, truth and history, New York, Cambridge University Press, 1981) in which brains are floating in a nutrient solution while the reality is simulated through electrical impulses. It is about the question whether we can be sure not to be in such a situation. See also skepticism, reference, knowledge, causal theory of knowledge.|
Books on Amazon:
Brains in a Vat/Skepticism/Chalmers: also these problems (such as problems with causality, Humean world) arise for reasons of logical supervenience because facts about the external world are not logically supervening on facts about our experience.
The Conscious Mind Oxford New York 1996
Constructing the World Oxford 2014