|Knowledge: Knowledge is a conscious relationship to sentences or propositions, which legitimately attributes to them truth or falsehood. What is known is true. Conversely, it does not apply that everything that is true is also known. See also knowledge how, propositional knowledge, realism, abilities, competence, truth, facts, situations, language, certainty, beliefs, omniscience, logical knowledge, reliability_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Jean Buridan, "Sophismata":
Knowledge/Knowledge Paradoxia/Buridan/Poundstone: E.g. "No one believes this sentence". If it is true, no one believes it, and consequently no one knows it. If it is wrong, at least one person believes it, but no one (neither believer nor unbeliever) knows it because it is wrong. So it is impossible for anyone to know that this sentence is true! + ...
There could be an omniscient being who knows every one of your beliefs and could tell you at any time whether you believe it.
E.g. "No one knows what stands here"
If it is true, no one knows it, but if it is wrong, contradiction: no one can know anything wrong. So what stands there, cannot be wrong. It is an undeniable truth that no one can know._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
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