Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Significance, philosophy: something is significate that makes a difference in regard to the truth or falsity of a judgment. When determining the significance, the question is whether a threshold value has been exceeded. See also relevance, truth values, judgment, statistics.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.
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Books on Amazon
Beck-Bornholdt/Dubben. Der Hund, der Eier legt Reinbek 1997
I 47
Def Significance/Statistics/Beck-Bornholt: a result is considered to be significant if the probability that it is an incidental finding is not greater than 5% - arbitrary (but internationally recognized). - The threshold should be lowered -> four-field test: Determines how likely it is that we suspect differences where none exist. - II 48 The chase after significance leads to new errors. - Significant results may be inconsequential. - Error: testing until a desired result comes out. - II 116 those who do not find a significant difference do not prove that there is no difference.
I 113
Statistics/Clinical Trials/Number/Significance: in a study with few patients major differences can only be confirmed or refuted. - II 114 - Problem: with a high caseload in the end everything is significant, but not necessarily interesting.
I 237
Significance/Statistics/Beck-Bornholt: the fixed level of significance should depend on what consequences a possible error has - e.g. an umbrella with 95% reliability is okay, a parachute is not.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-06-28